Preparation of the canaries of song for the competitions

Miguel Angel Martmn Espada
Judge C.N.J./F.O.C.D.E. of Song T. Español

(Translated by Systrans)

1. Previous considerations: Before beginning to deal with the subject the preparation of the canaries of song for the aids, it is precise to make reference to other subjects of extreme interest for the canaricultor. In the first place, it is necessary to warn to the fan novel, to which goes destined the present work, which the method that we are going to develop is not the unique one that uses the criadores of song canaries, exists a great variety of systems, all of them equal of valid, and we even can say that an approach different from which exists is the preparation of canaries in each one of the deposits. If the form is different in which the criadores of the three races of song canaries work, logical thing in attention to the remarkable differences that there are among them, in spite of having common bases, the difference is not smaller than it exists between the method of a criador and another one. The different circumstances that each one we have in our deposits influence of decisive form in the form to work the canaries, thus is not the same to have much or of little site in our houses, to have much or just a short time frees and, in this last aspect, in what moment of the day we enjoyed it (the case of some canaricultores friends that they are forced to train its units by the nights, due to its turn of work comes to the memory). These circumstances and others make the existence impossible of an only system of preparation.

The criador of song canaries that begin in this world must begin with a method that in a great number of occasions one does not adapt to his personal circumstances, for that reason it must to be adopting an own method little by little, method that nobody will teach to him, the experience that will be contributing to him, with time, a greater knowledge of the matter will guide to him in that persistence. However, it does not mean that in his beginnings it does not have to guide by the lessons of people with more knowledge and experience. In sum, we must learn a system, the one that is, as long as its correction by the results consists to us obtained by our teachers and on that system, next to which, without a doubt some, we will be knowing, be doing one own one that adapt us. It does not have to forget the nascent one that he is not he who must adapt to the system, is the system the one that is due to adapt him. The present work has as only purpose of orienting to the nascent one and of giving bases him on which it can be working.

On the other hand, it will have noticed the reader who we did not speak of education, but of preparation. In many works on the present subject are alluded to to the education of canaries, at heart, the term education hides a method of education with teachers practice that races like the Malinois needs (due to the approach that their cultivators give him), but that in way some can become tensile to the canary of Spanish Song (Timbrado) it is necessary to deny fully that ours national singer needs the education with teacher stops to develop its song and less still can be said that the canary need him to make an adult song The bad interpretation of the conclusions of the etslogos, as well as the doctrine of which they practice a type of canaricultura without risks take to the nascent ones to a sea of doubts that takes to them to waste a precious time in the correct study of the song canaries. A good advice is that we make case to which they base his studies on the canaries, the canary cannot compare itself, with regard to its song, with other much worse equipped species than he stops canora function. More than five hundred years of studies and work, as well as the genetic fixation of three races of song, internationally recognized, is sufficient sample that we cannot compare the study of bred and selected canaries for the song, during centuries, with the observations done on species of rudimentary song and, mainly, of behavior, often, different, in its reactions, to the one of the canaries, whose habits they have been changing in captivity. In sum, it is as if we tried to compare a study made with wild canaries, with made other with song canaries, doubts somebody of the change experienced genetically by the domestic canaries with respect to its wild ancestor.

In order to finish this section, simply to say that they are welcomes, for the nascent one, all those information that him can report knowledge, but before giving credit to opinions foreign, to which it is the canaricultura of song we verify that they are applicable to the canary and, if they are not it, we try to learn what we created can be to us useful, but never take like faith dogma what it does not consist to us objectively like certain single because gentlemen, to which a greater scientific preparation is estimated to them, say it, especially when their observations not even have been made on song canaries, or they are limited to give his opinion, cradle in other peoplis experiences and that, without a doubt, would not dare to make those that did them, because it is not possible to be treated similarly what the tactical mission of the canary, has made unequal.

2. The month of September: The final straight line of the work of the canaricultor begins in the month of September, or, which is the same, when the canary young people are finishing his first dumb one. The end of the dumb one means that the canaries are already physiologically almost adult, to consider them since such are necessary to still hope, however, to that its hormonal development culminates. Once the canary has finalized its first period of dumb and has left, for always, its youthful plumage, the hormonal development, in certain way paralyzed until now, is reactivated and every day the advance is more evident than the review of the same one experiments. Rebujo taking the expression used by a colegiado companion, begins to being more comprehensible for our ear, in spite of having been always there, only we needed that decoder natural that causes that poquito to little the review it is transformed into the beautiful and harmonious song of the adult canary. Have left much to our canaries to still cross, but it will be precise to multiply the times of observation of the different voladeros, with the purpose of avoiding that an excessively advanced canary can drag to its brothers by an inadequate footpath that irremediably leads them to pajarerma nearer. In this task, it will be of extreme utility to watch the canaries that dominate in each voladero, which is easy if we have observed the voladeros with assiduity. The canary guide as I denominate them, occupy the highest place within the hierarchy established in that small community who constitute each voladero, is the canary guide, or the canary guides, if there are several, those that dominate their brothers and those that mark the development of their song. Thus, if one of those canaries begins to make defects, or to degenerate their song, the possibilities that the other males of the voladero follow it are almost absolute. For that reason, if we observed that one of them executes wished variations will not be necessary to perhaps separate it and, with a little luck, we have been able to save to the rest. If we took much in separating those canary guides, also it can happen that their brothers do not know to correctly follow the evolution of their review, so, at the most we take, the risks of spoiling to the rest of males is multiplied.

We do not have either to let watch to the rest of chickens, because one of the canaries that we consider inferior hierarchically, it can spoil and drag to all the others, given the greater one facility that involves in their execution the degenerative and defective turns. In summary, we must watch all the canaries, but very in special to that they show a hierarchic position greater between its brothers and to whom they present/display a weakness, or remarkable physical subdevelopment (the sickly units, as well as those who have been developed deficiently, generally, are more worse equipped for the song, since they are not able to carry out a normal evolution of the same one, the advisable thing is to separate them the sooner of their brothers, since they are first that usually makes defective turns).

The observation of the voladeros in September can facilitate, to experienced canaricultores, one first selection; since we can discard some voladero, in attention to those observations that the experience makes possible and that are far from the reach of the nascent one Of which it is possible to be done with those first discarded, if site is not had where they can follow its evolution without risk for the rest of unit (just in case we were mistaken), or if they are not wanted to remove definitively from the deposit (sold or given), we will treat more ahead, when speaking of the discarded units, in general, to show a deficiency of faculties for the song, or in order to develop its review with the sufficient guarantees.

Of this second section it is possible to point that the month of September must be dedicated to the control of the review of our canaries, that begins to be clearer, and to carry out, those that are enabled, one first selection.

3. The month of October: Most of the aids of song canaries is celebrated from the last week of the month of November to principles of the month of February. Geographically, the aids of Andalusia and the zone of the East usually are first, the last ones are those of the peninsular North third, in particular, if my information are not mistaken, the last aid of Spanish Song (Timbrado) is the one of the city of Oviedo, one of the cradles of our race of song. The certain thing is that throughout the month of October the canaricultores come to the separation of their units in cages of aid, the operation is made, in each zone, depending on the dates of the aids. Thus, in those zones where the aids begin at the end of November enjaula at the beginning of October, and in those where the aids are celebrated as of the second fortnight of January the operation can be delayed until November principles. Most of the criadores enjaulan their canaries, on the average, during the second fortnight of October, which allows a greater margin them of action, at the time of competing in aids of different geographic zones (Exist circuits of aids who begin in Andalusia and finish in the north, which allows to one narrow collaboration between the canaricultores and their associations, and a better knowledge of the reality of our canary all over the country).

Before coming to the separation in the cages of aid, we must assure us that our material can and prepare a performance program to us, to this task we will dedicate the first days of the month of October.

I believe that he would be interesting, since we have made reference to the material, to make an interjection and to speak of a as important subject as he is the one of the cages of aid. All nascent one is, depending on the geographic zone in which it resides, with the problem of the provision of cages of aid, which make artisan and usually they are not easily in the market. In order to do to us with them we will have to resort to the associations, where surely that can give solution us to the problem, either directly, or providing to us information on where to obtain them. They exist, by the others, several types of cage of aid, subject which I am not going to enter, adjust to model C.o.m. for canaries of song (Valencian cages and Sevillian cages and others they are fruit of the shortage of first, or the tradition (cages of aluminum and wood cages of Madrilenian the old model [ ], these last ones are still seen frequently by the aids). Let us have a model or another one of cages, the important thing is that they are in good conditions and they fulfill his purpose.

Another subject of interest, related to the one of the cages, is the one of the positioning of woods. He is frequent to see woods placed according to the Regulation of aids of the C.o.m. according to the same one, the cages of the Roller canaries (art. 5 of the Regulation of that race, applicable to the rest of song canaries) must take to a wood in the third wire of the side of the comederos and another one in sixth of the opposite side the same it has art. 19 the Regulation of National Championship F.o.c.d.e. So practical he is counter-productive, since if the canary does not adopt, of natural form, a position of correct song (horizontal with respect to the ground, doing a at the most acute angle better), is very difficult to correct it to it with woods thus placed. The woods of the cage must be placed trims and to a medium altitude, so that if the canary adopts very vertical positions of song, that usually cause songs too much elevated, when nonestridentes, they are possible to be raised and to be forced it to him to sing thrown, with which the song wins in dulzura and the canary is more aesthetic in the cage. It is necessary to use the cages and their elements like instruments to help the canaries to take maximum advantage of his possibilities. The reader knows who the incorrect positioning of woods and the vitiated positions that cause in the canaries, can cause a quite negative printing in the judge, also there are units that are customary to sing in an incorrect position, as a result of the woods and that when they rise to them, assuming a more horizontal position of song, gain in musicalidad and the valuation of some passages can be greater.

Retaking the central subject of the work, we will deal with place in that we are going to place our canaries, once separated in the cages of aid. This place, if it is possible, once transferred the young females to another place (for example, with the adults), will be same in which have spent the months of voladero, whatever less environmental changes suffer will be better. The environmental conditions will be same that they had in the his previous phase, stay with good acoustics, semipenumbra, or tenuous light, tranquillity, extreme hygiene, a correct and sufficient ventilation and that apparatus of music that as much has helped us in the task of secreting a voladero of another one acoustic. The feeding will continue being a canary seed mixture and nabina, whose composition we will vary in attention to the necessities of each bird; if it goes very advanced we will add more nabina to the mixture and if the problem is its delay we will take off it, if it is precise in this one last case we will come to provide single canary seed to him. We never use vitamins to advance to a canary, because we can force an unsatisfactory development for our aims.

Let us consider that the fact of enjaular to our canary young people to a so early age causes that we accelerate the normal one to happen of the evolution of its review. The solitude anticipated to that we sank to our units, in natural conditions, not would produce until the arrival of the spring, when they would reach the sexual maturity determined by the culmination of his development hormonal. Then the together flocks that have spent the winter the preparations of the reproductive time separate and begin. With the separation in individual cages we fomented a precocious development hormonal caused by the amazing development of the territorialidad instinct, that takes to the canary to mark its territory, the cage, as opposed to the rest of its companions, who are in the same situation. Of as the canary to its new home adapts, it will depend, to a great extent, that is able or not to develop their canoras faculties to the maximum, because if it accuses in excess the change of situation can occur a series of circumstances that take to a degeneration of their song. It can happen from a state of physical discouragement, that can cause the death of the unit, until reactions that go from a bassoon to a precipitation in the evolution of the song, counter-productive both for the same one.

Let us consider that the fact of enjaular to ours canary young people to a so early age cause that we accelerate the normal one to happen of the evolution of its review. The solitude anticipated to that we sank to our units, in natural conditions, not would produce until the arrival of the spring, when they would reach the sexual maturity determined by the culmination of his hormonal development. Then the together flocks that have spent the winter separate and begin the preparations of the reproductive time. With the separation in individual cages we fomented a precocious development hormonal caused by the amazing development of the territorialidad instinct, that takes to the canary to mark its territory, the cage, as opposed to the rest of its companions, who are in the same situation. Of as the canary to its new home adapts, it will depend, to a great extent, that is able or not to develop their canoras faculties to the maximum, because if it accuses in excess the change of situation can occur a series of circumstances that take to a degeneration of their song. It can happen from a state of physical discouragement, that can cause the death of the unit, until reactions that go from a bassoon to a precipitation in the evolution of the song, counter-productive both for the same one.

We must delay to the possible maximum the date of separation, since that unnatural caging to that we put under our birds can end at the appearance of degenerative turns as a result of the precipitation of the canary at the time of fixing the different variations that compose their song. He is very frequent which a unit, when wanting to advance in excess the accomplishment of a turn, does not get to combine the different consonants well and vowels who in him take part and before that situation she improvises consonant of easier execution, like for example ch. A useful advice, for the nascent one, is that he does not try to prepare its canaries for a determined aid, but to participate in those aids who adapt more to the evolution of the song of its units, of not doing it thus we run the risk of which the song of our canaries degenerates or it stands out in excess. There are sufficient aids in our country like not having to make depend our plan on work of one single one, although he is the one of our city. He is fundamental to try that the evolution of the review of our canaries is made slowly, enough we have already advanced them to the behavior to his separation in the cages of aid.

There are different forms to place, or to locate, the cages of aid. A closet specially designed for such aim can be used, to transform the young batteries into closets clearing the frontals, to use transportines instead of closets, and to even hang the cages, simply in a wall, thousands and one forms, for all the tastes and any place (from a room to a balcony, or terrace). This it is a point that depends exclusively on the site that arranges each criador, since I have indicated above, is necessary to adapt the method to our possibilities not on the contrary and.

Finally, at the time of separating the male young people, it is necessary to make sure that they have finalized the dumb one completely. It is interesting that we conduct this operation [ the separation ] gradually, taking care of mainly two factors: the age and the development; and the dates of the aids. When we have an elevated number of males and the aids in whom we try to participate little have next dates, he is advisable that we separate the canaries gradually, in relation to the degree of development of his song, to be able to have different lots with which to compete in each one of them, without having to advance, or retarding the evolution of the review

We will distribute the canaries by lots of brothers, if we have thus had them separated in the phase of voladero and if we have not done it thus and we have had them all together ones, by song similarity. Between the canaries that have a same review we will do a selection taking care of the characteristics of its voices, in special to the tone. Each lot will be located in a different shelf, or transportmn.

4. A critical period: Since there are indicated repeatedly, throughout the previous point, the fact to introduce our canaries in individual cages, as it requires the practice of the sport canaricultura, supposes to advance the evolution of its song, so that it matures on time of being able to compete in the aids. It is by that reason by which the first weeks in the cages of aid are crucial for the success or failure of our sport aspirations. Depending on the capacity of adaptation from our units to the described situation his review it will evolve in a sense or another one. The fact that we must try that the circumstances environmental they do not vary, with respect to the phase of voladero, is due to that work to try, that within which fits, the canary no acknowledgment in excess the change of situation. Thus, if we cleared light, the song of our canaries will undergo a considerable bassoon, that can cause a song trimmed and under tone and intensity, if on the contrary, we increased to too much the light, we will cause the greater one advancement in the evolution that can end at songs with turns degenerative and, possibly, tending to the estridencia. A practice advised by some criadores, for the sake of obtaining one better acclimatization, it is to leave them canary are possible to be seen during the first days of individual separation, not placing plates or separations between the different cages. Of all the saying, the reader can as much deduce that in the handling of the song canaries the excess as the defect causes situations detrimental, hardly susceptible to be solved, once they take place, by the criador.

The critical period to which we talked about, is the one of the forced maturation that they have to carry out the canary young people until being able to close song or, which is the same, the accomplishment of the song of an adult canary, to which the exigency is added to comply to that artificial pattern denominated Code of song created by man to model the song of the canaries under the musical qualities of rate, harmony and melodma. The time that takes the canary in closing song oscillates between month and means and two months, depending on the characteristics of each line of song, in individual, the greater or smaller complexity of the variations that it tries to fix and of the environmental circumstances, between which the man, his successes and their mistakes, occupy the first place. There are many canaries that potentially are authentic champions and who do not reach such category, to that genetically they were destined, by the stupidities of their criadores. In sum, the attentions that we dedicated to our canaries are definitive, for or, or for badly, at the time of obtaining good results in the young and sport preparation of the canaries.

Until the canary does not close song we do not have to remove it, of the place where it is, to sing, so practical it supposes to precipitate the evolution of the review, the preparation and training we must leave them for that moment at which, although it continues evolving his song, no longer run risks of which turns in formation process degenerates. The training, to which we dedicated a point advanced more, must be carried out with canaries that make already a song extremely advanced, in which they are let notice the different ones turns that are going it to compose, but to that it still needs the tonality, the intensity and the colorful one of the voice timbre that it will acquire in few days or weeks. The song of the canary follows a cycle, the ability of the criador it is in knowing how to make arrive at his units to the aids in the point of greater splendor, because from then, most of the canaries, begin to show fervor symptoms and the song begins to lose musicalidad (rate, harmony and melodma , as it is gaining decibels, as it forms to demonstrate his virilidad and with the purpose of attracting the females, to the time to warn the other males of his presence.

Until that moment, in that we pruned to be removing the different lots from its shelves, or transportines arrives to listen to them and to be acclimating them to the changes of place and the presence of other people, we must in front of listen to and control to the canaries, seated them, to be able to see which and how sing, separating those that demonstrate an inferiority in their aptitude for the song and doing the necessary thing so that the rest is developed in the improvements conditions (We remember that, as much in the voladero, as in the cages of aid, before the canary reaches a clear song, it happens through different phases in the plasmacisn process of its innate pattern in one melodma and is days that points great quality and others in which it emphasizes one pretend mediocrity, that disappoints to the criador. We do not confuse these fluctuations, own of the review, with the process of recortamiento, or degenerative, continued that experiment those canaries to which it is necessary to separate, a thing are the changes own of the song in period of formation, that takes place intermittently, or of occasional form, and another those continued changes that they become clearer day to day). If there are units that need a different feeding (grapevine previous reference on the mixture of canary seed and nabina) we will have to provide it to it, if there are abrupt changes of temperature, that can harm the voices of our small tenors we will provide to them, for example, water of regaliz or sweet wood, as it is known him in some regions, to prevent respiratory problems that can as much harm their aptitude for the song, like the accomplishment of the variations that conform their repertoire (is more than demonstrated than the resfriados ones, or other diseases of the respiratory channels, are the cause of which many canaries fail themselves and the transmission, in high number of cases, of nasal turns, as well as of the feared aphonies; whip of the canaricultura of song throughout all its history). There is even one who once gives to a small bizcochera of paste of egg and honey them to the week. In summary, we must be pending of all the necessities that these singular students winged they can need for being able to take maximum advantage of its innate conditions for the good song. As a reminder, we remember that the phenotype, or assembly of perceivable characters by our senses, is the result of the incidence on the genotype, assembly of characters that a unit has inherited of its ancestors and who can transmit to their descendants, of the factors environmental As anything it serves to have an establishment of unit of high quality, genetically, if soon we are not able to cause the precise conditions so that it arises.

5. Units that show a deficiency of faculties (defective Turns and poor and excessively trimmed song) The essence of the sport canaricultura is the improvement of the different ones races of canaries. For it a series of Codes and Regulations exists, that they gather the characteristics that must have the units of one or another variety. The way to arrive at the utspica longed for one and perfection, is the zooticnica selection, by means of which we eliminated the units that do not adjust to the standard of the race and we were centered in the work of the apt considered ones to carry out our objective, or are the aids, or the reproduction, after such.

Throughout the season, since we began the young until they are going to begin the aids, the selection must become in three stages:

- Elimination of the units with physical tares.

- Elimination of those units that do not adjust, by the reason that will go, to the standard of the race that we cultivate. In our case, the canary of Spanish Song (Timbrado), the reasons for disqualification in an aid are: Presence of red factor in the color; Curls in the plumage; Turns, in the song, that make suspect the crossing with other races (Roller and Malinois) Any other indication that can put in evidence the crossing with other races of canaries or different species.

- Elimination of the units that show a deficiency of faculties for the canora function.

The units of both first groups, in theory, will have been rejected already in previous phases, for that reason in this single section reference becomes to third. It is necessary to distinguish of between the canaries that we have been separating gradually and that are in this group, those that they make defective turns and those that, without making that type of turns, present/display a song of poor repertoire, of that we say that they are trimmed. If we do not arrange of much site, the normal thing is that these canaries are already in pajarermas, or in the houses of some known friend or. However, if we have site very well, infrequent thing nowadays, we can try to correct its defects, the form to do it will depend on the nature of that deficiency that has taken to us to separate them.

a) Unit with defective or negative turns.

The criador of song canaries must remain kind and to demonstrate its musical sensitivity at the time of the detection of defective turns, or negatives in the song of its units. In effect, defective turns or negative turns, since all the defective turns are not penalized like negatives, their execution simply reduce score at the time of making the valuation of each passage by the judge; the transmission of defective turns affects the joint quality of a series of encuadrables turns in a same section of the List of judgment.

It is possible to distinguish, within these turns, in attention to his nature three types:

- own Turns They are those that are integrated in the innate pattern of the song of our units and whose accomplishment must to a genetic predisposition. This type of turns usually is pronounced already during the phase of voladero, as of both months of age and is first, as a rule, that usually they make formal appearance.

- acquired Turns (copied) They are those turns that the canary makes to the be them listened to other units and which it has assimilated in his song. They can appear at any time of the development of the review and, in general, the risk disappears when the canary closes song In many occasions this type of variations is copied by unit that we sent to compete before to have culminated the evolution of its song.

- degenerative Turns They are those turns that they appear in the song as a result of a deficiency of faculties, of vario origin, in the plasmacisn of a turn that it involves in its execution a certain complexity and that it is translated in the substitution of the original phonetic text by another one of greater facility, than it is accustomed to to cause deaf, devoid turns of musicalidad, that break melodma intrinsic desirable in the song of the canary. A clear example it represents the profusion of turns pronounced with the consonant ch, that replaces the original consonants of greater complexity and musicalidad. The causes of appearance of these turns very are varied: precocious caging; forced precipitation of the evolution of the review carelessness on the part of the criador in the attentions due to the canaries (control of the different environmental factors); etc., etc..

We can speak, to part of the previous ones, of an origin of pathological nature mainly diseases of the respiratory channels, that affect the appearance and fixation in the review of defective turns. If we treated on time to our units, it would not have to take place the degeneration of the turn, if, on the contrary, we do not do it, the turn can degenerate and, in spite of the disappearance of the disease, be fixed to the song. Many rascadas nasals and must to pathological states that the criador has not detected on time.

It is possible to make a concise reference, within this section dedicated to the defective turns, the defective voices or, said of another form, to those phenomena that affect the transmission sonant of the canary in a generalized manner. From always, the greater plague than has shaken to the cultivators of song canaries, it has been the aphony (itself, or weighs, under the nomenclature of taken voice , to her has been united lately the gangosidad that many canaries aquejan. Their causes of appearance are, mainly, of genetic origin (crossings badly made that are translated in defective devices of song) and of pathological origin. Against that they have genetic origin is nothing no to do, so single to try not to use suspicious units to transmit them in the young. Those that has a pathological origin they have difficult processing, but the possibility that fits they simultaneously disappear that the disease that caused them. The regaliz water is a good remedy if the affection is not of much gravity, in the rest of the cases will be necessary to go to the own experience or of other canaricultores and, in last end, we will go to a veterinarian so that it prescribes a processing to us adapted for the origin disease.

Separate mention deserves the denominated voices nabinizantes as the voices are known the canaries that aquejan a pitch defect which it causes the printing to be before unit, that in spite of correctly making the different turns that conform the song of the adult canaries, have not reached the sexual maturity; the poor tonality in that they emit his song must to an excess of nabina in the mixture (Mentioning to D. Rafael Leon Rivero, " the training of the Roller canary ", Birds n: 7, 2* Time, pag. 16 (1969): " the nabina has substances anti-tiroideas or bocisgenas, that cause an enlargement (hiperplasia) of the thyroid, gland located in the forcebody of the neck of the birds and that through its hormone (tiroxina) stimulates the testicular secretion, and all we know that the song of the birds is employee of that secretion, that while more accentuated is, estridente it will be the song at issue. Then, hiperplasia to that we talked about jeopardizes the secretion of the tiroidea hormone, diminishing as logical consequence in the circulation and therefore the stimulus to the testicle of the bird so will not be marked and its song, in direct relation, as we said, with this physiological process, also will be smoother."). The criador must avoid, at all costs, that this takes place, for it will take care of that the dose of nabina, in those cases in that it must increase the habitual one, is not excessive.

We have already said that it is not the same to speak of defective turns that of negative turns, although both categories are united irremediably. All the defective turns are not negative. In order to know which are the turns negative of each race of canaries it is necessary to go to his Code of song In particular, for Spanish Canto (Timbrado) there are three turns that reduce score: rascada, estridencia and nasalidad. Let us see each one of them briefly:

- Rascada: Defect that has its origin in the excessive predominance of the consonant r in the phonetic text of the turn, that produces a hard sound that bothers to our ear. One occurs in those turns where the mentioned consonant takes part, mainly in turns of continuous rate (timbres and rolled variations) and in denominated floreos of fight or the re6nideros. We do not have to confuse the rascada one with the slanted turns own of many units coming from crossings with wild canaries, in which the sound of the consonant r predominates but without breaking the musicalidad of the song.

- Estridencia: Defect that consists of a change abrupt, either in the tone, or in the intensity of the sound during the transmission of the song, that causes the lost one of the musicalidad of the same one (rate, harmony and melodma . The ascents of tone and intensity that cause the estridencia can be attenuated diminishing the amount of light that receives the affected units and increasing the amount to them of nabina.

- Nasalidad: Consisting of defect the production of a defective sound, whose origin, apparently, it seems to be more in the nasal orifices than in siringe. One occurs generally in turns in which sound prevails of vowels (more pure than those in that they dominate the consonants) and in those in which certain consonants take part that, by their special loudness, are susceptible to produce nasalidad if the diction of the same ones is not the suitable one. Examples of nasalidades produced by a deficient one pronunciacisn, that leads to the degeneration of the turn, is those that they occur in the Roller canaries in flautas (substitution of consonant d by the m and in the canaries of Spanish Song (Timbrado) in the bell (deficient diction of the consonant n . The gangosos turns penalize depending on their intensity, the most serious cases constitute nasalidades, whereas the slight ones reduce score at the time of valuing the turn, but do not get to be negative turns, themselves.

Throughout the preceding lines, we have seen that in some cases the defective turns are susceptible to be corrected, or, at least, attenuated, depending on its cause of origin. When this is not possible the canaricultor must resort to more forceful measures.

We have declared ourselves, at the beginning of the present work, opposites to the use of teachers to educate the canaries of Spanish Song (Timbrado) given the genetic wealth of our national singer and the counter-productive thing of so practical for the improvement of the innate pattern that governs the song of our canaries. After that practice, one hides, generally, a canaricultura of preservative type and without risks that it tries to ensure the success in the aids and the sale copies However, the canaricultor - that pajarero- does not know that, in some cases, the use of teacher could be just. In effect, the practice indiscriminate of the education with teachers he is criticizeable, but the same practice used in tactical missions and justified it can be instructive. Without a doubt some, the correction of unit that they present/display in its song defective turns is one of those assumptions in which the use of a tutor could seem just who would have like function the education of the units that by single himself have not had the sufficient ones faculties to make its song under the minimum parameters indispensable to a race of canary song. However, if we thought at great length on this question, we will realize which no it is worth the trouble to make such practical. Yet, we will do a reference with purely educative character.

The referred type of education must be taken to end under a series of requirements, that feel like to me indispensable, simultaneously that difficult to fulfill by most of the canaricultores. Requisite sayings are site, time and a unit that reunites the necessary conditions for the task of the education Of both first it is not necessary to speak, of third we will make a concise mention. The criador of song canaries must be conscious that if does not fulfill these three requirements must be come off the units with defective turns at the moment that discovers them.

The subject of the teachers one has been in a great number of works, perhaps in too many, but, in the opinion of most of the fans, the approach that has occurred to the subject is, at least, unsatisfactory. In any case, if in something those agree all that have treated east subject, is that the unit used for this task must have a great quality and lack defects in its song. It must be a canary in which the sonorous qualities (tone, intensity and stamp) and the musical qualities (rate, harmony and melodma) are perfect, with a rich and varied repertoire (we remember that quality is better than amount and between two units, are preferable that one that makes less turns but of great quality that that one other of varied repertoire more but of inferior quality . A good diction is fundamental to avoid that the students assimilate the lesson erroneously and make the turns without the necessary purity, which is translated in turns of deficient quality. Last, the teacher will be of the same family or line of song that the students, or, at least, will have a song of compatible characteristics to the one of these. A problem that considers at the time of using this system is the one of the conservation of the song of the adult males, since, normally, as they enter fervor and the season is developed of young, the song is decreasing, sometimes of resounding form, in quality. Without a doubt, the ideal teacher would be a canary that was not servant, with which, in theory, his song better would be conserved, despite he would suppose to let use like reproducers to the units of greater quality, with the consequent loss that would entail in the aspect of the genetic improvement. With respect to the electronic means use for education (recordings made in any type of support), we consider that although the quality of the recording is very high, always will lose some most important sonorous shade as much as musical.

In order to carry out the education of the young people descarriados we will come to place a dark curtain in front of such, but keeping one it distances prudencial, in order not to dangerously diminish the ventilation of the place where they are located (in the case of having them in transportines it can be enough with having the door or covers closed, always, like there am saying, that the ventilation does not undergo an important reduction). The purpose of sinking in the dark to the canaries is to inhibit its spirit to sing, so that thus they pay greater attention to the teacher and assimilate correctly his song. If the expression is allowed me, which is tried is to bomb to the units with defects with the song of the teacher so that they replace the own song by the one of this one.

The teacher can before be placed of different ways, between the students, they, etc., the important thing is that the sound arrives correctly at these last ones and that are not obstacles physicists who can weaken the correct perception of their lessons

b) poor and excessively trimmed Song.

Unfortunately, usually it happens that some units excessively develop a poor and trimmed song, either by a deficiency of faculties, or by external factors, such as the copy or the incorrect performance of the criador (for example, to cover the canaries before they close song . We do not have to confuse to these units with those others that trim their song when they are to point to close it, or after it to have done, since, although sometimes the causes agree, the explanation is impossible to do in most of the occasions, because there are canaries that without apparent cause they begin to lock in itself in a part of his repertoire, in damage of the other, and no longer it is possible to make nothing to remedy it. We talked about solely to those chickens that throughout the evolution of their review never have shown faculties, in spite of not having defective or negative turns, to make a rich and varied song.

The conduct to follow in these cases could be similar to which we have alluded in the preceding lines, when speaking of the education with teachers The only variant with respect to the saying is there that we do not have to sink to the canaries in the absolute dark. The so single curtain will clear one little of light, so that the inhibition of the song is not absolute. The objective is that the canaries assimilate turns of the tutor but without losing the own song, for that reason the structural similarity between the song of the teacher and the one of the students must be greater the possible one within ours possibilities. One is to enrich, not to replace.

The reader remembers who the education with teachers is opposite to the consequent work of genetic improvement of our canaries of song.

6. Preparation of the equipment: One of the prettiest and complex moments, of the sport preparation of the song canaries is, without no sort of doubts, the preparation of the equipment. The equipment, as the reader knows, is lots of four canaries of similar song, in repertoire or pitch registry, that is valued separately in attention to the sum of the scores of each one of the units and to the degree of existing harmony between their songs. The ability to make a good equipment depends, largely, of musical sensitivity that we have, since, over rules and systems, we must take care of which our ear considers.

The equipment will leave, in principle, of those lots of unit that we have located together when separating them in cages of aid (grapevine supra point 3, in fine . Normally, the canaries that form an equipment make a same repertoire, but sometimes it does not happen this. Two are, mainly, the reasons by which they are made equipment with unit of different song. First of those reasons it is not to have at least four canaries that sing equal, which usually it happens in the deposits where the units in different voladeros by brothers separated, all the pairs do not give more than three males. The second reason is the originality of some criadores that, in altars to their great musical sensitivity, look for in the equipment canoras combinations more complex than those than they are obtained with the traditional equipment, that sometimes sins of an excess of monotonma. In addition there are canaries that, by their particular characteristics, cannot integrate themselves in a traditional equipment, since, in spite of their individual quality, when singing the four units do not not only exist the necessary harmony but that also, and as a result of it, the individual quality seems to diminish and is harmed the particular valuation from each one of the units it deals with equipment in which the units do not combine his melodmas harmonically and a embarullado and singsong sound takes place. Also there are units that have one or several turns that emphasize over the others, by different reasons, and that when an equipment with four becomes of them it seems that those turns are repeating continuously (a clear example of the saying is the units who make the turn bell mainly in joint variation with floreo of onomatopeya tilon .

It also agrees to have unit of reserve for the case that one of the four chosen to enfer to me or dies, although this it will depend on the number of unit that we have compatible with those of the equipment at issue.

If we must reject the defective units, that exigency it is multiplied in the case of the canaries destined to form an equipment, in that it must prioritize the harmony, which is broken when in one several unit or song is a negative or defective turn.

An interesting problem represents the positioning of the units within the equipment. The units are placed vertically, a cage upon the other, being the cage highest the one than it takes to the first letter or number:

To 1

B 2

C 3

D 4

This positioning is the established one for the Roller canaries and the canaries of Spanish Song (Timbrado) the one of the Malinois are the following one:

To C


There is infinity of theories that treat on the positioning of the units within the referred structure, each one of them, however, it looks for to obtain a same objective: to obtain that the sound is uniform and that the connection between the songs of the members of the equipment is perfect, in sum, that the equipment has a total harmony. I return to defend that, over any theory, it is the musical sensitivity of the criador, the one that in each tactical mission us it will guide. The positioning will be made empirically, listening to the canaries and correcting the positions on the march. Yet, to say, that most of the canaricultores they place to the unit of song more hard in the lowest position, because to place it in another position it remarkably harms his companions, one prevails them and it breaks the harmony of the assembly, when it does not cause the canora inhibition of his companions.

As opposed to the modality of equipment we have the individual one. The canaries that compete in this category usually are the best ones of each deposit, however, are criadores which they prefer to use his better units in the preparation of equipment, when considering more commendable, sport the competition in that modality. Personally, and without despising the sport importance of the equipment, I consider like my favourite the individual modality, since it supposes to place to all the canaries in equality of possibilities, at the time of being able to obtain the triumph, without having to depend on the score of the rest of the members of the lot to award. Nowadays, many aids include in their regulations an article that he makes possible that the canaries of those equipment in which they have not sung the four unit happen to the modality of individual. It is a right norm that he tries to only avoid that canary of great quality they remain without the deserved one compensates of the prize, because the equipment in which they were including failed. In how many aids the contrasentido one does not occur of which they are without awarding unit, including in equipment that failed, that they have greater score that those others that gained the individual prizes. Once the equipment fails, like so, the units that integrate it they lose, in where it does not govern the referred rule, all possibility of obtaining prize, except for the Great Prize is worth the redundancy, in aids where it is granted the canary of greater score of the aid.

Lately, the participation of lots of four individual canaries is being allowed simultaneously. It is chocante that the associations do not know of such way the norm that it prevents to judges to judge four lots of individual - Code of Song Spanish (Timbrado) -. I do not want to enter controversies on the convenience or inconvenience of so practical, but to make notice the reader who can be given the contrasentido one of which the four individual of a criador they sing and that in the equipment that he himself it presents/displays fails some unit (as in more than an occasion it happens in the aids in whom this modality practices). The system is not righter, previously seen, to happen to individual the units that have sung in equipment in which it has failed some unit.

7. Training and preparation: The training or preparation of the song canaries, as or it has scored previously, must begin when these have closed song or, at least, they are on the verge of doing it. It is precise, before entering the subject more thoroughly, that we speak on the practice to cover the canaries with a curtain. Most of the criadores they base, or they think that it is thus, the training in the fact to clear light to its units by means of a curtain, that is placed to a distance prudencial of the cages of aid, shelves, transportines, or other places in which those are located, with the purpose of not harming the ventilation and avoiding problems with the voices of the canaries. The resistance between the dark or half-darkness and the light, when they remove from his location to be listened, urges to sing the canaries. The use of curtain, to cover the canaries is a practice, as all the referred one to the canaricultura of song, that must be made with extreme care, since if we covered the canaries before these have closed song, the only thing which we will obtain will be to retard them e more, even, to cause that they trim his repertoire or they have a tonality and excessively poor intensity of song. One of the most frequent errors of the nascent canaricultor is, indeed, to cover too much soon to its units.

But to cover the canaries is not essential to follow a correct training of our canaries. In effect, having unit under the environmental conditions that we have treated, these a half-darkness or sufficient semipenumbra is sunk or in so that when removing them, the light of the place where we listen to them is sufficient in order to make sing them. In addition, and although to play with the light it is doubtlessly a valid method, in principle, to do to sing our canaries, if we have followed an observation continued of such and they are customary to our presence, will be enough with the fact to remove them so that the mere instinct from territorialidad it urges to them to sing. The gradual evolution of the song of the canary, that we defend, causes that it is not necessary to cover the canaries more that in case they culminate his evolution in dates too much early to those of the aid and to avoid that they are encelen too much. curtain must be used like an instrument at the time of conserving the song already done of the canaries that, of another form, run serious risks of not arriving in fullness of faculties at the aids, as a result of the descendent evolution in quality that entails the declivity of the cycle of the song

Until the moment arrives at which the units can to begin to be trained we will be limited to seat faces of the place where we have them and to listen to them as they are singing, we do not have to listen to all of time but to center to us in one or several unit to avoid to return to us crazy and to be able to make a satisfactory observation. If it is possible, this operation we will do it, once in a while, in company of another or other people, so that the canaries are accustomed totally to the presence human and they take the sufficient confidence.

Once we created that the moment has arrived for initiating the preparation, we will begin to remove the canaries by lots, by individual or by equipment. We will have to use for it a room quiet and with good acoustics (we remember the teacher of teachers, Antonio Drove Aza when he wrote much about the importance of the stay in whom the canaries were listened to and that could influence in hearing and the printing caused by such, since the quality of the units could exaggerated or be diminished depending on the acoustic conditions of the room. This it is the foundation of the capital importance that occurs in the aids to the room destined to the judgment . We will use electrical light preferably, the used one in aids, since the solar light, in some cases, excites too much to canaries and do not make their song with desirable serenity to appreciate the quality of the same one. The cages of aid will be placed in one it pulls, one upon another one, and on highest we will place a small board or cardboard, to favor the concentration in the song of canary that in her is, this detail, apparently without importance, it is fundamental for correct hearing of the canaries. First times that we remove to our canaries, these, generally, they will show distrusted by the new development of the situation, will begin to jump nervous from a wood to another one and they will be called an a others. Surpassed that initial disagreement they will begin to develop its repertoire canoro. We do not have to worry if they do not sing first times that we remove them, in certain form it is normal, there is canaries that need more time than others to break to sing in our presence. Every day we will remove to the table our canaries during fifteen or twenty minutes, the time will depend on each tactical mission (to have to the canaries singing during too much time, or to remove them too many times to the day causes that the fervor state is accelerated). A sign that allows us to appreciate, in many cases, if the canaries are going to sing when we removed them is the attitude that they adopt, if the possibilities that are calm they sing are many, if on the contrary they jump of a wood to other nervous and excited, piando and moving the wings, will not sing and if they do it they will do it of hasty and difficult form.

On what moment of the day is adapted to remove the canaries to sing, this one will depend on the time that we have and of when we have it. The ideal is in the morning to remove them between the nine and the eight at night, schedule in which the judgment in the aids is developed. We do not have why to remove the canaries every day to the same hour, in fact we must have them customary to sing to any hour and in any place. The aids are few, although some has, in which it is allowed the criador to choose the hour in which their canaries have to happen through the judgment table.

If we followed the saying in the previous paragraphs, or another valid method, except for imponderable ours canaries will sing when the crucial moment arrives for happening through the judgment table

© Miguel Angel Martmn Espada