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Megabacterias

By Brown Enrique Ortega
Specialistic veterinarian in birds

The Megabacterias is present microorganisms in the birds that have attracted in the last years the attention of the specialistic veterinarians. And this increase of popularity must, among other reasons, to that they can be the people in charge of some of the cases of " the badly dry " denominated one.

They are called megabacterias to have a size superior to the conventional bacteria. A size that approximates more to the one of the fungi, with that they share some characteristics.

This type of bacteria psitacidos, paseriformes, ostriches, quails, ibis have been located in, etc. In psitacidos its presence has been demonstrated in:

- Melopsittacus undulatus
- Agaporois spp.
- Alisterus scapularis
- Aprosmictus erythropierus
- galerita Cockatoo
- Cockatoo roseicapilla
- Calyptorhynchus latirostris
- Calyptorhynchus magnifiaus
- Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae
- Neophema bourVii
- splendida Neophema
- Nymphicus hollandicus
- Polytelis alexandrae
- Polylelis swainsonii
- Psephotus several
- Psittacula krameri
- Trichoglossus haematodus

Whereas in paseriformes it has been seen in:

- canary Serinus
- Serinus leacopygius
- Carduelis chloris
- Carduelis carduelis
- Lonchura domestic servant
- gultata Taeniopygia
- Ficta Emblem
- Erythura gouldiae
- Heteromunia pectoralis

The presence of megabacterias in the wild populations of the birds is not known, but it seems to be low. In a study made in Holland on a population of canaries, it was verified that 30% of the examined birds had megabacterias.

The number of affected units increases; in an investigation made on periquitos in the United Kingdom, during years 1985-1986, was east type of bacteria in 5% of the analyzed units, whereas in 1991 21% of the analyzed ill periquitos were it by this disease. However, some scientists consider that megabacteria is a component normal of the digestive flora of the periquitos, but that stress and the slope of the defenses favors their multiplication and the appearance of the disease.

I INFECT

Made infections in laboratory they have shown that, whereas the English periquitos they were affected, the normal periquitos did not do it. These findings suggest it susceptibility of the birds to develop the varia disease considerably, possibly in function of the genetic weakness of the unit

The way of transmission of these bacteria between the birds is not known. Experiments made on periquitos, have shown that free chicks of the disease had less predisposition to have megabacterias to an age between six and nine months that those other adoptive chicks whose biological parents were carrying, but whose parents were free of these bacteria. In another experiment made, two pairs of positive adult periquitos stayed next to other two pairs of free periquitos of megabacterias during 14 months, remaining free of these germs those that already they were it when beginning the experiment, it is to say it did not happen I infect some in spite of the long period that remained all together ones.

SINTOMAS

The disease appears so much in young people like in adults.

In affected periquitos it appears at a first moment loss of weight and depression, happening enough time next to the comedero, but without really ingesting food. Approximately half of the patients has vomits and diarrea (from slightly soft lees to very watery) with great variation in the color of the same ones. The evolution of the disease is very variable: some birds hold during months (of twelve to eighteen months with possible periods of improvement) but the majority dies weeks after beginning the symptoms, generally thin. A 10% of the birds pass away without previous sintomatologma.

This disease usually appears with expansion of proventriculo (up to three times its natural size) and an increase of pH of the same one, as a result of the diminution in the production of stomach acids. PH of the proventricle of healthy canary is between 0'7 and 2'4, whereas the one of canary with megabacterias increases until 7-7'3. This finding has fact to think about the possibility of acidifying the drink water (by example with apple vinegar) to fight against the disease.

When the megabacteriosis is outpost appears regurgitation and elimination of seeds without digesting in lees.

PROCESSING

Studies made in the United States and South Africa on periquitos and ostriches respectively they have shown that megabacterias is sensible to some antibiotics, although experiments made in Germany showed their resistance all antibiotics known. In some cases those are the antifzngicos that they seem to work better

It can turn out effective to acidify the drink water, to administer to foods of easy digestion and vitaminic complements, in addition of specific probisticos of birds. All this will contribute to increase the defenses of the units and it will favor his it fights against the disease.

In Israel an experiment was made that consisted of administering lactobacilus oral channel in order that these reduced pH of the proventricle and thus to be able to make life most difficult a megabacterias lodged there.

) Enrique Ortega Colored person

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