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canario timbrado

Considerations on the inheritance

Miguel Angel Martín Espada
Judge C.N.J./F.O.C.D.E. of Song T. Espa6nol


The Spanish canaricultores we can be safe to tell on an important number of fans who, removing time from where there is no it, are completely devoted to develop and to teach the technical principles, theoretical and practical, on that the young of the canary to all that one is based that requires its advice. The work that these gentlemen come carrying out, through articles is truely praiseworthy well and works in specialized magazines, well by means of char them and colloquies in the associations. Be worth these lines to be thankful publicly its disinterested work, since, lamentably, the fans no usually we repair in which it costs to clear hours to the work or the family in order to dedicate them to this pretty one and it burnishes educative task that contributes to the qualitative improvement of the Spanish Sport Ornithology.

The technical level of the criadores of canaries, at the moment, we can consider that it is elevated. Nevertheless, in branches of our liking as it is the canaricultura of song we move in a very small degree of knowledge. It seems that it worries to us more to discuss on the scores, the elimination of these or those turns or to establish controversies, own of metaphysics about the nomination of such. We forgot, really, that without the canaries, the fans and directives clear that to follow for the work of the song canaries, we cannot consider so circumstantial subjects at least, sometimes, as the nomination of the different passages or turns that conform his melodma. A clear unconcern by as important subjects exists as the inheritance of the song; that it is in which it bases this difficult task of obtaining good singers.

When we spoke with the criadores of its methods and work systems, we were, in most of the occasions, whereupon other times shine by their absence, the explanations are so fantastic that they seem extracted of a science story fiction. In summary, most of the fans lacks of the mini formation in matters like the Genetics or the influence of factors such as the feeding and the illumination in the song of the birds.

The complexity of this branch of the canaricultura, whose difficulty amply is demonstrated, deserves a serious study, a study that must be made by each one of its cultivators and whose conclusions must be shared for, with time, to obtain firm bases of which it can divide to all canaricultor novel. We have that to take example from our companions of other branches and not to have fear to raise to controversies on these so necessary subjects, position that from it will arise that spirit of overcoming and search of the truth there that accompanies all investigator.

It is certain that we do not have laboratories, neither of highly qualified experts, nor so at least of the absolute certainty of the exactitude of our postulates and, generally, of means necessary minimums for its verification, but we have something that it impels to us towards ahead, that something is the anxiety to know that innate curiosity that has taken to the man to the place where finds and that it difference of the rest of the creatures who accompany in their trip by the time and the space to him.

The subjects that next we are going to treat they are fruit of the experience shared between canaricultores of all national geography, which they put in front to his own ego the satisfaction to see like the object of his liking, " the canaricultura of song " is developed and consolidated in a country, as it is Spain where as much admires and loves the singing birds


The key question of which it is due to start off is if the song of the canary is hereditary or no. One of the debated questions more in etologma science that studies the guidelines of the behavior animal, is indeed the referred one to the song of the birds. We could to begin to mention authors and theories, as well as experiments, but so single they would cause confusion to the reader and they would turn a difficult and tedious task the reading of these lines. By that reason we will limit ourselves to summarize the main lines in which the work of the etslogos is developed ornithologists and canaricultores more prestigious than have taken care of the subject.

We can distinguish three theories, that, really, they correspond in a while with the majority currents followed in the etologma or another one of his short history.

1:) In the first place, we found to which defend that the song of the birds is learned by means of hearing of the song of adult units.

2:) On the other hand, other authors consider that the song is innate and that the guidelines so that this one is developed in each concrete species depend exclusively on the genetic inheritance.

3:) Last, we found a position eclectic, intermediate, according to which the innate thing and the acquired thing or learning is combined. The basic guidelines of the song of each species they would be innate but it would exist the possibility of enriching it by means of learning.

In a plane purely scientist the third theory is followed nowadays and the one that corresponds in better measurement with the studies and made experiments. Not doubt that fits the song is hereditary, but also can to have part learned, which explains the ability that has many birds to assimilate in their song what they listen, although is own of the song of other species, or to even learn to imitate certain other peoplis sounds to the pajaril world This last end has been ratified by the ornithologists in his observations of field, arriving to indicate species whose song is nourished to a great extent of passages of the one of others (the mentioned examples more they are the pinto estornino and sinsonte American . Also there are families, like for example the one of alazdidos (the larks, totovmas, etc.), in which the influence of species in others of the same one family is clear, as she indicates to J. Rochi In last place, are species that by the complexity and wealth of their song not only hardly copies of others but that they exert a clear influence on them (so it is the case of the ruise6nor .

In the plane of the canaricultura, we found the following positions, although the defense of one or another option depend in many occasions of the own interests of the criadores, since they try to justify his particular system and others show preference for a determined approach of the culture of the race:

1:) Defending of the necessity to use adult canaries like teachers to educate the young people, since they consider that the assembly of turns that conform the song of the race not transmits genetically and it is precise that this one is inculcado through hearing of the mentioned professors This position some does not have scientific base and any criador can observe it directly in its house.

2:) Those that, even recognizing that the song is hereditary, raise the necessity to complement it with teachers This position supposes to exactly take the conclusions from etolsgos and ornithologists with respect to the singing birds in natural conditions. According to which I have been able to read about the Malinois canary on words of prestigious international judges of this variety, the culture of this race is based on this system of selection. Part of a hereditary base, that is the predisposition to the watery song, and complements the repertoire of the units by means of hearing of one or several teachers who in some cases are specialized in the execution of certain types of turns. This explains the ample repertoire that has the units of greater was worth and the fact that there is not ceiling or limit of score in Belgian race

Although the conclusions of etslogos and ornithologists I consider that they are correct and the position of the criadores of Malinois are justified by the origin and system of selection of the race, is not permissible this position for the rest of races of song canaries. We must reject this position, safe in the case of the indicated exceptions, when considering that education with professors nonsingle is not necessary but that it hides, on the part of most of its defenders, the intention to preserve the song of quality unit that already they have, with the purpose of avoiding the uncertainty that supposes to have to wait for until the song of the canary young people matures. This practice prevents the evolution of the own song of the canary, since the chicken will limit itself to imitate the best thing than the song of the teacher can On the other hand canoro is necessary to mention the tedious thing to have the same repertoire every year, with slight variations in the best one of the cases, in our deposit.

3:) In consonancia with the exposed thing in the previous paragraph, we aligned with which defend at any cost that the song of the canary is hereditary and that the work of made selection, with the objective to enrich the genetic patrimony canoro of our canaries and the variety of repertoire obtained by means of the same one, make the use unnecessary of teachers since they suppose to limit the possibilities of creation of new turns and estrofas on the part of our units. The selection method of the Roller canary and the canary of Spanish Song (Timbrado) it guarantees that the units of these races transmit to their descendants all the information necessary to make a varied song that reunites the racial characteristics demanded by its respective codes

However, third position is necessary to make a series of matizaciones to this. The canary can make all that sound that allows him to create the different parts that conform their complex apparatus of song whose key piece is the phonation device, siringe To greater complexity of the apparatus of song greater interpretativa capacity. This interpretativa wealth is not limited single its own song, the canary is by nature a good imitador, being able, in most of the cases, to leave the review of its song to imitate or to copy the song of other canaries, volunteer (masterful or involuntarily. In order to favor that our canary young people are able to make arise the song to whom it has had the received inheritance to them his ancestors it will be necessary that we avoid that they listen to the song of adult birds. We can affirm that what the canary inherits is the innate predisposition to make an indetermine series, but determineable, of turns, that will be shaped in one melodma through a period of review marked by the morphology, more or less suitable, of the unit and by the factors that have surrounded to the same one during the maturation process. This does that the song of the canary young people in our deposits varies of a year for another one, but always keeping structural similarities; more accusing in the lines worked in consanguinity, to the supposition the work of a these greater concretion of the canoras possibilities of the animal: smaller genotmpica variation.

The genetic wealth of the song canaries makes the education with professors unnecessary, that supposes, like already we have aimed, to impoverish the repertoire unnecessarily canoro of our units, when preventing that the chickens culminate the evolution of their review that without a doubt some would be translated in a different song and with probabilities certain to be of greater quality than that one than we have forced to them to imitate. To this it is united that a unit educated with teachers does not offer the due guarantees to us on which is going to transmit to its descendants, only which we will know is its greater or smaller capacity of imitation and assimilation, in relation to which has been inculcado to him by means of hearing of adult units.

In summary of previously exposed, the song of the birds has an innate part and acquired other, the criadores of races of canaries specialized for the canora function we looked for the development of the innate part in damage of the acquired part, with the objective to obtain a genetic pattern of the possible richest song, than melodma allows our units to construct one based on the wished parameters of selection.

Most of the opposite argumentations to the hereditary or innate base of the song of the birds that here we defend, are based on drawn erroneous conclusions as a result of experiments that, from a principle, did not offer the suitable guarantees to obtain their objective. For example, experiments made with unit are mentioned frequently, of different species, that have been placed individually in soundproof places and, even, experiments based on the observation are described of unit to which it has been deprived of the sense of the ear. In the first case, the isolated units acoustic made a rudimentary song extremely, of great poverty and it was even appraised a clear infantilism or subdevelopment in the same one. In the second case, the deaf units as soon as they were able to make a song properly saying, rather emitted a succession of noises These results made reach the conclusion, to those who made them, of which the song of the birds was not hereditary but learned by means of hearing of adult units of their same species. Nowadays we know that so that the song of the birds is developed it is precise that a series of stimuli occurs that they trigger that the unit puts into operation the mechanisms precise physicists that they make possible it. Thus, the coexistence of different individuals in a same territory or voladero, does that between they are social relations in which the rivalry to the hour to feed themselves, to occupy a certain place in the hangers, to establish a hierarchic scale, etc., they make arise instincts like the one of territorialidad, fundamental to include/understand the meaning of the song, and that put into operation the precise conditions so that of the hormonal development that determines the process of evolution of the song. An isolated unit completely lacks those stimuli, the song is a communication form, with whom it is going away to communicate if it does not have other same types with which to establish social relations, of the Hindu to him that they are, it lacks external stimuli that harness the development canoro.

To this it is necessary to unite the fact that the young birds complement themselves to each other, learn of others, during the time space in which its song is single a review the etslogos call to this phase of the canora evolution plastic song since it supposes a period of test of which soon it will be his adult song or stable song This complementariness between the songs of noveles is the foundation of that it is not precise to use masterful in the song canaries, the work of the innate thing does that with the single reference of his beautiful and complex genetic pattern they can obtain melodmas. Most of the species of birds that are used in the experiments bases their song of adult, mainly, in the learned thing and for that reason when leaving them isolated in group, without adults of whom they can copy, their song, in spite of responding to the basic pattern of the species, much less is varied than the one of the units that are developed in freedom. Validity to observations done with birds of field or domestic species cannot be given that have not been selected for the song, in these cases yes needs hearing adults to obtain more or less complex songs, but it is by the fact that there has been no a selection that took care of the patterns that we used in canaricultura of song. When the conclusions based on experiments made with those species to our field of study are extrapolated, without making the corresponding ones matizaciones, the only thing that we are doing is confu$AB ___

Validity to observations done with birds of field or domestic species cannot be given that have not been selected for the song, in these cases yes needs hearing adults to obtain more or less complex songs, but it is by the fact that there has been no a selection that took care of the patterns that we used in canaricultura of song. When the conclusions based on made experiments are extrapolated with those species to our field of study, without making the corresponding matizaciones, the only thing that we are doing is to confuse to the criadores.

Like colofsn to this point, we return to repeat, since it does not matter to us to insist time and time again on the same, that the work of the canaricultores of song is based on harnessing and developing the base innate of the same one, with it we created a solid base or pattern genetic so that the units of the respective races are able to improve the variety of repertoire every year, always within the guidelines of selection of the same ones and without having to resort to education with teachers


In this point we will reflect about a series of questions of great interest for the canaricultor of song, although we have to notice that in some cases one is mere hypotheses of work, when not being able to count on a scientific confirmation of the expressed thing. We will mainly talk about two subjects:

1) How the hereditary base of the song is transmitted.

2) Who contributes more to the song of the children, the father or the mother.

1) How the hereditary base is transmitted of song.

We have said that the canary inherits the innate predisposition to make a series of indetermine turns that will be shaped in one melodma, through the influence of factors such as the anatomical conditions and the circumstances around which the animal has been developed.

The information that determines the different ones characters of the individuals are, as already the reader knows, in the genes, which they occupy certain locus or place in the chromosomes, which are by pairs, in diploide state Each ancestor has contributed his prole half of his chromosomic dowry, since the gametos or reproductive cells so single are carrying of a haploide number of chromosomes, half of the constitution genetics of the animal. Of the total number of chromosomes, two they constitute the pair of chromosomes that govern the sex of the animals and for that reason sexual chromosomes are denominated, the rest are denominated autosomas. The number of chromosomes varies in each species, in the man are 46, whereas in the canary are 18, distributed in nine pairs. Returning to the sexual chromosomes, these are denominated X and and in the case of the mammals, and Z and W in the case of the birds. In the mammals, the males have a sexual chromosome X and a sexual chromosome and females have two chromosomes X the males determine the sex of the descendants by means of the sexual chromosome and In the birds it happens the other way around, the males have equal sexual chromosomes both, Z Z and the females have a chromosome Z and a chromosome W with which they are these those that determine the sex of the chicks. The number of males and females, on the basis of the previous thing, would have to be in equal theory, as it is seen in the following table:










The previous table it is come off that there is the same number of possibilities that males leave who of which females leave. All we know, by experience, that the chance is capricious and that not always it obtains the same number of males who of females. This serves stops to give account us of which in spite of having to observe the laws of the Genetics, often, the randomness of the combinations causes that the results are not the wished ones and waiting for

The song of the birds, as soon as that is perceivable by our senses, is one of those external characters that conform the phenotype as it has already scored throughout these lines. The canora function corresponds to the males, the females usually does not sing, although there are some emit a series of sounds that remember to the review or plastic song of the male young people, but who do not reach the tone and the intensity of the musical song of the males, nor characteristics that they look for in the specialized races of canaries (rate harmony and melodma . The main cause of which the females occur singsong it is a imbalance produced by an excess of masculine hormones in the blood, often one occurs in adult females after the season of young or in old females. The fact that the transmission of the song is almost absolute prerogative of the males takes to us to raise to us if it is a character related to sex or a character of free transmission (whose regulating genes are in autosomas, not in the sexual chromosomes), but conditional by that one. The consequences of one or another position are of crucial importance for the work of the genetic base of the song of the canary. Lamentably, and in a plane strictly scientist, is not possible to me to praise/pour off me by one or another position. Nevertheless, like work hypothesis, childbirth of which the genes that govern the song (one or several pairs), as understand it in our liking, are transmitted bound to sex, would be located in sexual chromosome Z genetic pattern of song would transmit itself of the same form that any other character related to sex.

But although that hypothesis was correct, we cannot to forget the rest present genes in the other 16 chromosomes of the canary, that they determine as important aspects as the morphologic or anatomical characters of the bird. We do not have either to forget the influence the environmental factors. Two units with the same genetic combination never would be equal by that environmental influence (in which the human factor must be introduced).

Their morphologic characteristics do of the canary a true box of music in which if a piece does not fit absolutely, badly we will be able to hope that the sound is perfect. The song canary requires of a type that will have to be observed by the criador. Each race of canaries of song has structure morphologic typical, that is the one that marks, next to an apparatus of special song, the sonorous differences already known by the fans. We will have to go to the standard of the race that we cultivate to make the crossings. So single to say in this respect and as characteristic general of the song canaries, his ample pectoral capacity, like no he could be of another form, when lodging a respiratory system very developed. In order to finish the reference on the importance of the anatomy of the good singer we stand out that by whom it is the genetic quality of a unit, in which to the song one talks about, if he is not himself accompanied of physical training conditionses and of an apparatus of suitable song hardly he can arise.

With respect to the external or environmental factors, he would be pretencioso to try to make a relation of all the factors that affect the development of the canary, since it would be impossible to enumerate them without forgetting some. For that reason we will say that the criador must favor the correct physical development of its units, considering that in this one influences from the form in which the female fattens, to the slightest cold. Also we will have to try, like already we have said several times, that nothing can turn aside to the canary young people of its review.

2) Who contributes more to the song of the children, the father or the mother.

Between the canaricultores we found two possible answers to this question:

On the one hand, we found the one that I call traditional position that counts on a great number of defenders and that during long time has been the majority answer in our liking to the raised question. The followers of this position maintain that it is the female the one that more influence has in the song of the children or, in other words, the one who greater information contributes to its genetic pattern of song is not strange to hear or to read that the female influences in 60 0 / 0 or more in the song of its sprouts.

On the other hand and being based on the knowledge scientists, in special in the Genetics we found one second position that, as opposed to the previous, devoid answer of scientific foundation some, explains that the canary, like all alive being, receives to equal parts the genetic information of its ancestors. The logical consequence of this is that the influence in the song of the children is distributed to equal parts, in theory between both parents. Another thing is that by morphologic factors or external factors the song of the young canary has moved towards one or another side. Thus, for example, when morphologically the son looks itself more like one of the ancestors, whose genes will have dominated to those of the other, or, also, when this one copy melodma of other units, of the paternal or maternal line.

Dominancias of the genes can occur that govern the inheritance of song of one of the reproducers, subject of which is left much, not to say everything, that to study, but this as much happens with respect to the genes of the mother like a those of the father. Any general rule does not exist that supports that the mother has more influence than the father in the song of her descendants, nor on the contrary. When the inheritance of an ancestor, in the aspect canoro, premium on the one of the other, must to circumstances concrete, that does not admit generalization.

Those that they defend the preeminence of the maternal inheritance on the paternal one in the song make when the empirical and logical stating fact that the song of the children is different from the one from the father. But that is thus because, in most of the cases, it is the fruit of the interrelation of both inheritances, independently of which prioritize in the tactical mission, because the female does not contribute more than male. When we crossed a green canary with a yellow canary occurs an intermediate inheritance, product of which the resulting units pmos or they are stained, the distribution of the lipocrsmicas zones or melanicas take place at random, are greener units and exemplary more yellows, in addition, sometimes, appear exemplary green or yellow. In the previous example, we can say that the maternal inheritance influences more in the color of the descendants to present/display this one yellow zones in the plumage. In the same way, we see that there are canaries product of that crossing in whose prime plumage a color or another one, without there is another reason, in principle, that the chance stops it. The same it happens with the genetic base of the song of the canary, the chance will determine that it dominates to the maternal line or the paternal one, or that is a codominancia or intermediate inheritance.

We can summarize all the saying until now saying that there is to remember always the theory, but also must consider that the theory is that, theory, and that in the reality not always one is fulfilled, especially when we spoke of Genetics Let us imagine for a moment that we know all the characteristics that can contribute parents to their descendants, hopefully outside possible, in this assumption it would happen just like if we know all the numbers that are going to integrate the Fat wished one of the Lottery of Christmas but we ignored his final order. The chance is capricious and no matter how much the human ego laments it, it is not in our hands the total control on the mechanisms of the inheritance. Nobody can know, with absolute certainty, when doing a crossing, if the product of the same one is going to be good, mediocre or bad. As usually it never is said " is known of where the hare can jump ".


As anything they serve all the knowledge that we have, or we let have, if we are not able to apply them in the young of a coherent form. There is the importance of the method, that shines by its absence in most of the deposits of canaries of song. In effect, to the criador it interests to him to obtain good canaries immediately, little concerns the quality to him of the units that it has if the first year they do not give champions him. The eternal problem of the canaricultura is that the criador is not centered in the work of its units, every year we changed the reproducers. It is easier to throw the fault to the canaries that we have used like ancestors and to the criador who us have sold them, who to enter an objective and detailed analysis of the possible causes of our failure, and are that we are scared to discover that, in fact, the only problem which it exists is the own criador, that blinded by the great power of which all it knows it or by its inexperience, does not have been to the height necessary to remove benefit to the units that it had. Nor that to say has this type of canaricultor no it obtains quality unit unless the goddess Fortune appears to him, which does not happen quite often, in any case, in these cases, the quality disappears of the same form in which it appeared. In canaricultura of song, the criadores described in the previous lines are those that doubt the heredabilidad of the song of the canary and those that they resort, consequently, to the use of teachers to educate to the canaries noveles.

The importance of the method is in which it is going to be the notebook of instructions that we are going to follow in our work. canaricultura does not have to be understood like a short term work, hardly we can make a serious work if we separated from the way previously drawn up by bad initial results. We will have to mark an objective to us, since of tastes there is nothing no written, each criador will have to consider this question and once we have it we will draw up the necessary ways for its attainment.

Selection And Crossings

In the nature, the improvement of the different species animals and vegetables take place by means of the selection natural The Mother Nature in her infinite wisdom, is in charge of which only the best one equipped survives and they reproduce. By cruel that this seems, the species have guaranteed so only it passes of generation in generation the more appropriate genetic material to obtain his perpetuacisn in a world, like ours, in which the conditions of life are more and more difficult for the wild species

In captivity, many units that in the heat of freedom would not have possibility some of surviving, obtain it. This has allowed us to obtain mutant specimens of great beauty, whose days they had been counted in freedom, to the supposition the mutation, generally, a decrease of the possibilities of camouflage of its carriers; so it is the case of the mutations that affect the color of the plumage of our canaries, how much it could hold a yellow or white canary in freedom without being grass of the pregivers. If the produced mutations or variations do not harm the quality of life of the animals, we can say, in principle, that they are beneficial. On the other hand, all mutation or variation that causes a decrease considerable of the quality of life of the animal she is negative and it must be avoided that their carriers reproduce, under pain to perpetuate ill ancestries animals the condemned to a life suffering. This it is the foundation of the artificial selection or zooticnica to eliminate of the young all that unit that does not reunite the minimum requirements necessary to assure descendants it heals and without tares.

However, it is necessary to distinguish the selection on the basis of sanitary reasons, of the selection of race unit, in which, besides to consider first, it is necessary to observe a standard of beauty previously determined by the criadores. To this last one it would be necessary to add the personal preferences of each criador, his particular form to understand the race that cultivates within the parameters established by the standard of the same one. In summary, the zooticnica selection must be made in attention a:

1:) the quality of life of the units (elimination of the young of the ill units or with tares).

2:) the standard of the race.

3:) the preferences of the criador, within the limits of the standard

Applying the previous thing to the object of the present work, we will have, simply, to observe gathered in the different Codes from song or standards at the time of making the crossings.

The crossings to make with the units that we have, will be directed to harness not wished the dear characteristics and to the progressive elimination of, by means of the discrimination of the units that separate from our ideal type (those that they show to some physical tare or defect in the song). We will never have to use in the reproduction exemplary that has a defect, unless they are essential for our plans of work. In this last case, so single the experienced criadores more are enabled to carry out its reproduction successfully.

In the judgments of the aids he is not infrequent to see how exemplary that they have a series of lack or defects in their song gets to have high scores and that even obtain some prize. It is necessary to distinguish what is the valuation of the song of a canary in an aid of which it is the valuation of the same one facing the young. In the aids, the judge must limit itself to apply a regulation or standard and to value the song of the canaries in attention to the same one, the most important considerations at the time of the reproduction is most of the times outside the strict work to judge a canary in the aids and is for that reason reason why often the scores with the true one do not agree was worth of a canary like reproducer.

Let us imagine two canaries, one of extensive repertoire that shows a great dominion from its score but that in another one it cannot develop the turns of satisfactory form (with defects) and less reduces musicalidad to the assembly and another one of repertoire varied but made of excellent form and without lack some, yet, we suppose that this second unit has less score than first. Exemplary what is adapted like reproducer. Without a doubt some, and in most of the occasions, we must use in the young the second, that one that although a varied song does not have too much has a repertoire without defects that will allow us to make a work with greater guarantees of success, since it is easier to obtain exemplary from high selection starting off of the quality that not of the amount. If our canaries have a song of quality and without defects we will not take much in obtaining a greater repertoire. On the other hand, if we left from a unit that has defects in its song, most normal is than these are multiplied in the descendants if the criador is not the sufficiently capable thing at the time of raising its objectives in the young.

The conclusion of previously exposed is that we do not have to be deceived by the scores obtained by ours unit, we do not use these like main element of judgment at the time of selecting our reproducers, we put in front an analysis cold and objective of the canoras and morphologic characteristics of each canary. Sometimes, the canary with greater score is not potentially the best reproducer. The secret of the success in the young of song canaries is based enormously on being selective with which it lies down to raise.

Once made the selection of the reproducers, in attention to the criteria above exposed, it is necessary to see the different ones possibilities that we have at the time of making the crossings. We are not going to indicate schemes general of crossings since we considered that each deposit has problematic a different one and the valid schemes in can not be it in others, always taking care of the units that are controlled and its concrete characteristics. We will limit ourselves to do a small one and simplified classification of some of the different types from crossings that we can make with our canaries. If the reader collates the following classification with which they appear in manual of Reproduction the Animal that will occur to account of are some divergences, fruit of our simplifying intention:

Consanguineos Crossings

Crossings NonConsanguineos


Of refreshment


By similarity

Of correction

Consangumneos Crossings: They are those made between unit to which they unite familiar loops, or, said of another form, originating units of a common trunk of ascending. We will call direct consangumneos crossings to the made ones in order to fix the characteristics of determined units by means of ascending crossings linear (with parents, grandparents...), descendent (with children, grandsons...), or collateral (between stepbrothers). Indirect consangumneos crossings will be those by which it looks for not fixation of the characters of a concrete bird but the own characteristics of a line of song understanding like so a family of canaries with genetic characteristics own and determined, that totality of the pertaining units to her is pronounced actually. The indirect consangumneos crossings usually are made when the unit that is going to be object of a direct consangumneo crossing it dies and it is replaced, like bad minor, by another unit of the same family (it is the case of the crossings between cousins and uncles and nephews, in his different degrees). These crossings to which we have denominated indirect are not recommendable, safe in case of necessity, to the supposition, in certain form, a deviation of the work that is being made, generally based on the concrete units and not in the families or lines of song.

Nonconsangumneos or opened crossings: In canaricultura of song they are used to initiate new line of song or to refresh a already existing line in which the consanguinity begins to be excessive. We distinguished between the refreshment crossings themselves, whose objective is to diminish the consanguinity index; crossings by similarity that they try to harness the characteristic or common characteristics of both units, at least in the aspect that interests to us; and the correction crossings based on the law of the compensation and that consist of the mating of two units of different characteristics in order that these compensate and to eliminate therefore the nondear characteristics.


The consanguinity is admitted by practically most of canaricultores as one of best means to work the song canaries. It helps us to fix the characteristics wished and it allows us to create different lines of song, but also it has his disadvantages. By means of the consanguinity we fixed and we caused the presence of the virtues, but, if the criador does not know to dose it, also we caused the appearance of those hidden tares and their perpetuacisn. It is a proven fact that the abuse of the consanguinity it brings ominous consequences, for that reason it is necessary to know in what moment for introducing the refreshment crossing that will not be when they begin to appear the problems, since then it will be late, but at the previous moment at which we created necessary: there it is where one demonstrates to the experience and the ability of the criador.

The suitable use of the consanguinity produces benefits, more or less immediate, that with time go being smaller until a stagnation in the improvement takes place, followed of the feared consangumnea depression. The refreshment must be made before that phase of backward movement takes place, because of not being made therefore the hopes save the line they are reduced to the minimum.

I believe that general rules on in what cannot occur concrete moment it is necessary to introduce the refreshment each line of canaries has a different strength. There is unit that after a first consangumneo crossing already they leave tared and other that in spite of years of consanguinity still do not show their negative effects; everything depends on the strength of the units whereupon we initiate the work and of the negative characteristics, in all the aspects, that carry in their genotype.

Let us have presents some of the effects of the abuse of the consanguinity:

- physical Tares: mainly bony problems and malformations in the legs.

- general Weakness: considerable reduction of the defenses of the organism and its consequent predisposition to suffer all type of diseases.

- Problems of fertility and the high mortality of embryos and pichones.

- Considerable decrease of the aptitude for the song.

- epilipticos Attacks.

The evils avoidable all of them, that make more necessary still, to prevent them, the aid of the experienced criadores to noveles.


The genealogical use of the pedigrmes or trees more and more is extended between the canaricultores, it is as it is the race or variety that cultivates. The criadores of song canaries are not an exception and the pedigrm has become by own merits an indispensable element the interchange of unit between the canaricultores of elite.

It is certain that this practice still not is made by totality of fans, but number of his defenders increases and will arrive day, at least that would be desirable, in that our pedigrmes will have the same importance and validity that they have, of putting an example, in the world of the young of race dogs. Without a doubt it is a field in which the ornithological associations and federations will have much to say, since they are those institutions those that will have to determine the statutory frame on which is to be based the registry of the units of each criador that is interested in giving official validity to the pedigrm of its canaries. The pedigrmes at the present moment, when not having the official endorsement of associations and federations, are based on the good faith of the canaricultores, reason by which we must trust the same one.

The pedigrmes are, in addition, a weapon extremely effective against I pull ahead of excessive secrecy that invade many deposits and against the insecurity in which many fans noveles move when acquiring his first canaries of race, when lacking sufficient guarantees with respect to the racial purity of such. But mainly, of the pedigrm extremely valuable information can be extracted on its proprietor. We can know its ancestry, how it works the criador (what type of crossings has made), the degree of consanguinity of the animal and another type of useful information at the time of making our own crossings. If in addition we know the units well that appear in the pedigrm and its characteristics more excellent, we will be able to extract the characteristics that prioritize or would have to prioritize and, mainly, in attention to the object of this work, the lines of song that predominate in the canary object of analysis.

Naturally, if we do not have a great knowledge of the units that consist in the pedigrm or this one is not accompanied of informative or clarifying notes of the criador, to facilitate the interpretativa work, which we will have in our hands will not be more than a card in which there is written a succession of numbers of curtains ring, that outside informing to us on the type of made crossings, will not absolutely be used to us for anything, to only have a guarantee on the racial purity of the unit at issue, that in some cases will not be little.


Throughout the preceding lines we have dealed with subjects related to the canaries song in general, and, mainly, we have forgotten the interminable and habitual discussions that surround to this pretty branch of the Sport Ornithology and restrain their development. I hope that this modest work serves as precedent to direct in another direction the followed tonic lately and to be able to strengthen the qualitative canaricultura of song and quantitatively.

Personally, I consider that the fans of good faith must take care in enriching and fortifying the common loops that they unite to all those that we loved the song of the canary in nobodies of its races and canoras varieties. There are many things that unite to us, more of those than many think, and our future is, in certain form, interlace, for that reason we are in the obligation to understand and to help to us us in everything what it is possible to give back to us to the canaricultura from song to the place that occupied not many decades ago.

© Miguel Angel Martín Espada

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