By Brown Enrique Ortega
Specialistic veterinarian in birds
Every time the use of probisticos in the poultry keeping in general
is greater. The reason of isto is necessary to look for it in the
ample fan of advantages that offers its use
Few scientific studies exist still on the use of
these products, being made the majority of these works on farm birds.
However, many of conclusions obtained in these investigations can
be applied perfectly to the company birds.
We can define to the probisticos like cultures
of alive microorganisms (most of lactobacilos them) that colonize
tracto intestinal of the animals that consume them, and whose objective
is to assure the normal balance between the populations of beneficial
and dangerous bacteria of the digestive apparatus.
When the chicks are born their intestine is practically
sterile, being developed its intestinal flora during the first weeks
of life. This native flora is specific and is determined by existing
the physical training conditionses and chemical in its digestive
The forms are many in which the dangerous microorganisms
can arrive at the intestine of the birds - through the water or
of the food through the grooming of the pens when a bird feeds another
one, or substances that were inhaled soon tosidas and finally swallowed.
Nevertheless, the digestive apparatus has a series of defense mechanisms
that they prevent that these detrimental microorganisms settle here
and produce disease:
- In the proventricle (glandular stomach) very acid conditions
exist (pH 2) that destroy most of the bacteria and the virus.
- Production of substances on the part of the liver (acid Biliary)
and pancreas (pancreaticas enzymes) spilled to the alimentary
canal, being able to destroy there to certain virus.
- Processing of a mucus by the specialized cells that covers the
internal walls with the digestive apparatus, preventing the adhesion
of detrimental bacteria.
- Production of antibodies that are going to make unusable to
virus and dangerous bacteria.
- Presence of an intestinal flora (bacteria, leavenings and protozoos)
that it competes with the microorganisms nonwished.
When the normal flora is destroyed or debilitated
by the indiscriminate antibiotic use it is the moment in which the
opportunistic germs that normally infect a healthy bird begin to
be multiplied of fast form, originating disease in the animal. For
example, it is normal that the birds that be receiving antibiotic
like the tetraciclinas develop secondary infections by fungi (micosis);
this happens because the tetraciclinas destroy the bacteria that
maintained to ray to the fungi, being able these to grow now without
If with the administration of probisticos we were
able to maintain a flora intestinal in balance we will avoid so
frequent problems in the cage birds as they are the diarreas. But
as it is the ideal probistico, The characteristics that must reunite
are the following ones:
- That it contributes identical microorganisms to the normal intestinal
flora of that species in concrete. This is practically impossible,
since a canary does not have the same digestive flora that a finch,
camachuelo or a periquito. A wild canary even has different microorganisms
that a canary born in captivity. In spite of this the digestive
flora contributed by the commercialized probisticos are useful.
- Another important characteristic is that it is not harmful nor
producing from toxic substances.
- The microorganisms that compose them must adhere easily to the
intestinal wall and grow quickly.
How they act the Probisticos? The contributed digestive
flora benefits the birds from different forms:
Which is the composition of the Probisticos?
- Producing acid lactic the lactobacilos they are bacteria that
can transform the lactose into lactic acid, obtaining thus such
acidity in the alimentary canal that is done the impossible life
to him to certain harmful bacteria.
- Processing vitamins, beneficial and necessary for the bird
- Producing substances (example: acidolinas) that attack the detrimental
- Making enzymes that help the digestion.
- By the simple physical presence: they avoid that their place
is occupied by microorganisms nonwished.
The bacteria and leavenings are many that can to
use of beneficial form to maintain digestive a flora healthy and
in balance. The used microorganisms more are the following ones:
- Lactobacillus sp
- Sreptococcus faecium
- Bacillus subtilis
- Bacillus cereus
- Bacillus licheniformis
- Bacillus t
- Sacharomyces cerevisiae
The lactobacilos are perhaps the pluses known by
the poultry keepers, reason why I will make more emphasis in them.
One is bacteria that can transform the lactose into lactic acid.
This increase of lactic acid makes diminish pH intestinal at so
low levels that the survival becomes impossible of so dangerous
microorganisms corno And coli Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Salmonella
sp. and Stafilococus sp.
The lactobacilos grow quickly in the intestine,
being used: Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus bmfidu and Lactobacillus
acid This last one is able to make vitamins of group B.
They are also producing of Hydrogen peroxide, a
substance that prevents the growth of certain bacteria (anaerobic).
The leavenings also comprise of the probisticos.
Vitamins wealth in of group B and enzyme are used by their fermentativo
power (produce lactic acid) and by its that helps the process of
the digestion. The most used cerevisiae and Sacharomyces are Sacharornyc
In conditions of normality all the intestinal flora
remains in a state of dynamic balance, that is to say, that although
is put under constant changes reequilibra finally, as long as very
estresantes situations do not occur. Stress can cause changes that
get to persist up to 2 or 3 weeks after to have finalized the cause
that produced them. Studies made in hens showed that those maintained
units to 23 degrees Celsius did not experience changes in the amount
of lactobacilos presents in their intestine. Nevertheless, those
birds submissive as high temperatures as 43 degrees Celsius showed
modifications in their flora digestive.
During these years of bird clinic I have used and
use with enough frequency probisticos in patients who are receiving
antibiotic processings or that suffer of digestive problems. The
probisticos do not cure by single himself the diseases, but help
that the birds they recover before and, most important, they prevent
many intestinal upheavals. Its application by the canaricultor she
is simple, or in the food (paste) or the drink water. Advisable
at moments of stress: dumb, it raises, trips, disease, etc., specially
in wild species (example: finches) so sensible to any change.
© Brown Enrique Ortega