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Probisticos and birds

By Brown Enrique Ortega
Specialistic veterinarian in birds

Every time the use of probisticos in the poultry keeping in general is greater. The reason of isto is necessary to look for it in the ample fan of advantages that offers its use

Few scientific studies exist still on the use of these products, being made the majority of these works on farm birds. However, many of conclusions obtained in these investigations can be applied perfectly to the company birds.

We can define to the probisticos like cultures of alive microorganisms (most of lactobacilos them) that colonize tracto intestinal of the animals that consume them, and whose objective is to assure the normal balance between the populations of beneficial and dangerous bacteria of the digestive apparatus.

When the chicks are born their intestine is practically sterile, being developed its intestinal flora during the first weeks of life. This native flora is specific and is determined by existing the physical training conditionses and chemical in its digestive apparatus.

The forms are many in which the dangerous microorganisms can arrive at the intestine of the birds - through the water or of the food through the grooming of the pens when a bird feeds another one, or substances that were inhaled soon tosidas and finally swallowed. Nevertheless, the digestive apparatus has a series of defense mechanisms that they prevent that these detrimental microorganisms settle here and produce disease:

  1. In the proventricle (glandular stomach) very acid conditions exist (pH 2) that destroy most of the bacteria and the virus.
  2. Production of substances on the part of the liver (acid Biliary) and pancreas (pancreaticas enzymes) spilled to the alimentary canal, being able to destroy there to certain virus.
  3. Processing of a mucus by the specialized cells that covers the internal walls with the digestive apparatus, preventing the adhesion of detrimental bacteria.
  4. Production of antibodies that are going to make unusable to virus and dangerous bacteria.
  5. Presence of an intestinal flora (bacteria, leavenings and protozoos) that it competes with the microorganisms nonwished.

When the normal flora is destroyed or debilitated by the indiscriminate antibiotic use it is the moment in which the opportunistic germs that normally infect a healthy bird begin to be multiplied of fast form, originating disease in the animal. For example, it is normal that the birds that be receiving antibiotic like the tetraciclinas develop secondary infections by fungi (micosis); this happens because the tetraciclinas destroy the bacteria that maintained to ray to the fungi, being able these to grow now without obstacle some.

If with the administration of probisticos we were able to maintain a flora intestinal in balance we will avoid so frequent problems in the cage birds as they are the diarreas. But as it is the ideal probistico, The characteristics that must reunite are the following ones:

  1. That it contributes identical microorganisms to the normal intestinal flora of that species in concrete. This is practically impossible, since a canary does not have the same digestive flora that a finch, camachuelo or a periquito. A wild canary even has different microorganisms that a canary born in captivity. In spite of this the digestive flora contributed by the commercialized probisticos are useful.
  2. Another important characteristic is that it is not harmful nor producing from toxic substances.
  3. The microorganisms that compose them must adhere easily to the intestinal wall and grow quickly.

How they act the Probisticos? The contributed digestive flora benefits the birds from different forms:

  1. Producing acid lactic the lactobacilos they are bacteria that can transform the lactose into lactic acid, obtaining thus such acidity in the alimentary canal that is done the impossible life to him to certain harmful bacteria.
  2. Processing vitamins, beneficial and necessary for the bird
  3. Producing substances (example: acidolinas) that attack the detrimental bacteria.
  4. Making enzymes that help the digestion.
  5. By the simple physical presence: they avoid that their place is occupied by microorganisms nonwished.
Which is the composition of the Probisticos?

The bacteria and leavenings are many that can to use of beneficial form to maintain digestive a flora healthy and in balance. The used microorganisms more are the following ones:

- Lactobacillus sp
- Sreptococcus faecium
- Bacillus subtilis
- Bacillus cereus
- Bacillus licheniformis
- Bacillus t
- Sacharomyces cerevisiae

The lactobacilos are perhaps the pluses known by the poultry keepers, reason why I will make more emphasis in them. One is bacteria that can transform the lactose into lactic acid. This increase of lactic acid makes diminish pH intestinal at so low levels that the survival becomes impossible of so dangerous microorganisms corno And coli Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Salmonella sp. and Stafilococus sp.

The lactobacilos grow quickly in the intestine, being used: Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus bmfidu and Lactobacillus acid This last one is able to make vitamins of group B.

They are also producing of Hydrogen peroxide, a substance that prevents the growth of certain bacteria (anaerobic).

The leavenings also comprise of the probisticos. Vitamins wealth in of group B and enzyme are used by their fermentativo power (produce lactic acid) and by its that helps the process of the digestion. The most used cerevisiae and Sacharomyces are Sacharornyc S fragilis.

In conditions of normality all the intestinal flora remains in a state of dynamic balance, that is to say, that although is put under constant changes reequilibra finally, as long as very estresantes situations do not occur. Stress can cause changes that get to persist up to 2 or 3 weeks after to have finalized the cause that produced them. Studies made in hens showed that those maintained units to 23 degrees Celsius did not experience changes in the amount of lactobacilos presents in their intestine. Nevertheless, those birds submissive as high temperatures as 43 degrees Celsius showed modifications in their flora digestive.

During these years of bird clinic I have used and use with enough frequency probisticos in patients who are receiving antibiotic processings or that suffer of digestive problems. The probisticos do not cure by single himself the diseases, but help that the birds they recover before and, most important, they prevent many intestinal upheavals. Its application by the canaricultor she is simple, or in the food (paste) or the drink water. Advisable at moments of stress: dumb, it raises, trips, disease, etc., specially in wild species (example: finches) so sensible to any change.

© Brown Enrique Ortega

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